· TASK 1 EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENT
1.1 Executive Summary: IT and P.E.S.T
Significance landmark of IT revolution has been written in the history, which is no doubt the impact of IT on society is profound. This is become more pervasive into human organization, these influence emerging unintended consequence costs.
P.E.S.T is the acronym of the macro environment of Political, Economical, Social, and Technological factors; definition from “The Ultimate Business Dictionary” (2003) describing the P.E.S.T as:
P.E.S.T is a management technique that enables an analysis of four external factors that may impact the performance of the organization; it is often conducted using brainstorming techniques and it offers an environment-to-organization perspective as opposed to the organization-to-environment perspective offered by SWOT analysis.
Politic, Economic, Social, and Technology are of cause close coupled together, the objective of this research, is to address how does P.E.S.T framework does possible impact to advancement of Information Systems and Information Technology (IS & IT). The author mainly driven the research to identify the impact into Software Industry/Manufacture does itself was impact by the advancement of IS & IT and influenced lead by the P.E.S.T factors in the country of Malaysia market.
1.1.1 Political Factors
The political factors influence the regulation and the policy of doing business; Perseus Publishing Staff (2003) indicate that political factors are also influencing the spending power of consumers and also the expenditure of businesses organization. Screening through the political factors, the issues that needed to be considered are involve of: stability of political environment, tax and business regulation, government overall economic policy and vision to the macro environmental grown, regional and foreign relation, and etc.
During the last ten years, transforming from agriculture to capital-intensive industries; Malaysia has demonstrated a good paradigm that the political environment given an impetus to the advancement of IS & IT. These political factors imputed to a series of government regulation and planning that significantly drive the country toward advances of IS & IT; with the blue print of “Malaysia Vision 2020”, ultimately objective is leading the country toward “Knowledge Economy”, initiative of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC) which is a hub developed to promote multimedia products, services and Information & Communication Technology (ICT) in general, incentive for IS & IT industry such as five years Tax exemption for MSC status companies.
Following section provides a brief discussion that address how these political factors possible driven the advances in IS & IT in the next five years under Malaysia’s political factors.
- Nation Development Policy – Malaysia Vision 2020
Under the Malaysia’s Nation Development Policy (NDP), the precondition for IS & IT advancement in this country political arena is obvious. Since 1991 the government declared the plan of “Malaysia Vision 2020” – that objective to develop the country into “developed nation (Appendix – One Definition of Developed Nation)” by the year 2020; a series of strategic planning has been roll out; advancement of IS & IT is most emphasized, such as implementation of Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC), Tax exemption, Import duty free.
- Multimedia Super Corridor (MSC)
According to MSC website (www.msc.com.my), MSC is conceptualized in 1996 by Malaysia former president – Dato’ Seri Dr. Mahathir; under MSC framework the precondition for advancement of IS & IT is obvious. MSC currently are hosting more than 1484 ICT companies, which consist of multinationals, foreign-owned, institution of higher learning, and home grown Malaysian companies. The benefit and encouragement package under MSC framework, obviously is the precondition to facilitate the advancement of IS & IT.
- Taxation for ICT Company
According to the country risk summary report from Global Insight, the summary report comments that, “The tax system is well-developed. It is based on the UK and Australian models, and is generally considered to be investment-friendly. Incentives for investment form an integral part of the tax system, and tax rates are moderate (Global Insight, 2005)”. A well established tax system, with five years taxation exemption package to encourage qualified MSC status ICT companies, another five years may be applied for; under this taxation circumstance, accelerating to the advancement for IS & IT is obviously a advantages.
- Cyberlaw and Intellectual Property Legislation
General objective of Intellectual Property (IP) legislation is to provide protection for IP, this including trade marks, copyright, and patents. To software industry, the creation of software system and technology are strategic assets to operate the business, software organizations are deriving their revenue from IP creation. The typical type of revenue model included Package Licensing, Development Fees, and Subscription Fees. The objective of a business is to creating profit, with these intangible assets (IP) will be the primary concern for the business. Malaysia has now amending and refine the regulation for IP protection, unfortunately software system is unpatented before in Malaysia (Microsoft Malaysia IP Workshop 2006).
- Governmental Stability
In term of government stability, the recent report from Global Insight (2005) commend that Malaysia has been enjoyed a high degree of stability under the 22-year tenure of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad; although Global Insight (2005) also comment that, there is little risk of political turbulence in the short-to-medium term, study through the report, the author summarize few issues that “turbulence in the short-to-medium term” such as: Political Clash – Anwar Affair (Appendix – The Anwar Affair), Remained democratic deficiencies, and Stressed strong guidance over the media and state institutions. In term of governmental stability, the author deem the political turbulence did not fray and delay the National Development Policy for the development tenor of IS & IT. Royal Danish Embassy, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2005), in the report prepared for Danish companies, introduced Malaysia has an export driven economy implementation on high technology and capital-intensive industries. Overall, the author recognizes that the transformation from agriculture is the effort benefit from the political stability environment.
In fact, in term of knowledge economy, that is not only Malaysia developing toward this new economy, many countries are transitioning into it. IS & IT will continue promote and emphasize by Malaysia’s government; under the impetus of the government, with this precondition, the author deemed this will attracting more capital intensive entrepreneurs ventured into the IS & IT market.
The next five years, under NDP, the Ninth Malaysia Plan 2006 to 2010 has recently announced to the public, ICT has continue been emphasized. Overall, the author considers Malaysia having a good political condition for IS & IT advancement. Figure 1-A illustrated the business environment rankings from the Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom:
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-A: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Policy and Business Outlook
1.1.2 Economics Factors
Perseus Publishing Staff (2003) recognize that economics factors are especially important when planning for international marketing; issues involved interest rate, level of inflation, employment level per capita, long terms prospect for the economy.
In the software industry, the author recognized that brain powers are the critical resources for the organizations to stay on the ground; relatively higher cost for skilled and knowledge workers are incur. Recent trend for software organizations sustaining in the business is moving toward innovative products that enable to magnify the revenue and profit. These brain powers created Intellectual Property as an asset for software organizations, does software’s Intellectual Property valuable for finance institutes? Unfortunately, finance institutes in Malaysia are not considered to provide financial aid by accepting Intellectual Property (or Patent) as collateral. This is a critical financial barrier for non-capital intensive entrepreneur or technopreneur; indirectly this policy from financial institutes implied as an obstacle to IS & IT possible advances, especially to the software manufacturers.
Importation of multimedia equipment in Malaysia is free of duty (Global Insight 2005); this exemption eventually drive the consumer’s expenditure to IT products, especially in computer hardware parts. Figure 1-B illustrated the statistic and EIU forecast on the IT spending in Malaysia market.
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-B: Malaysia, Country Forecast – IS & IT Spending
Although importation exemption sound benefit to electronic sector, according to EIU (2005) there is a substantial changes in Malaysia’s computer parts industry, this is due to investors will continue looking to relocation of production to lower-cost locations, for example, China.
The author deemed it is a blank or will be a high liberation economic power on internet store and internet retailing in Malaysia’s market; believe that this will be the driving force in IS & IT advances for the next five years in Malaysia’s market. Figure 1-C illustrated recent non-internet retail trade statistic and forecast from EIU (2005).
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-C: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Consumer Goods and Retailing
Although internet stores are recently emerged in Malaysia’s market among these three years, this is the reason that the author deemed it is still a blank for IS & IT advances in internet store or eCommerce. According to the report – “US eCommerce: 2005 to 2010” by Forrester Research, the report forecast that online retailing in United State will having a stable grown at the average of 14%; from the turnover at 17.2 billion in year 2005 to 32.9 billion in year 2010.
Persistence growth on retailing it is obviously significant to IS & IT advances on eCommerce; it is also possible to bring along parallel peripheral technologies advances such as transaction security, digital signature, eWallet, MobileMoney.
Others than the market opportunities on internet retailing and internet store for the IS & IT advances; others category of eCommerce – online services such as internet hotel booking, cinema ticket, flight ticket, restaurant, bus ticket, and tour; these online services are emerging in Malaysia. There are few pioneer players in the market, for example AirAsia provided online flight ticket booking; online cinema’s ticket booking by Tanjong Golden Village (TGV) and Golden Screen Cinema (GSC).
Figure 1-D classifies the consumer expenditure statistic and the next three years forecast grow. Although the forecast shows in Figure 1-D will be an attractive for many suppliers, but the figure does not distinguish the online spending power; yet, software organizations should able to capture the perspective from these supplies, and marketing towards growing trend for eCommerce. The author strongly believes that, the future of business is encompassing by the internet and it is just the matter of time.
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-D: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Consumer Expenditure
According to EIU (2005) forecast report, comment on Malaysia’s economic outlook; “the outlook for Malaysian economic growth and stability will remain good over the next five years. … Robust export growth, boosted by rapid economic integration in the Asian region, will be the main factor that will enable the economy to expand at an average rate of 5.3% a year during the forecast period (Economist Intelligence Unit, UK).” Overall, the economics growths are optimistically reported by EIU (2005), Figure 1-E shows the projected growth on Malaysia’s gross domestic product.
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-E: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Gross Domestic Product by Sector of Origin
EIU (2005) evaluated the market opportunities in Malaysia will be an attractive one to many industries; as can be seen in Figure 1-F the market opportunities. Yet, the author do not think the rising of disposable incomes in Malaysia’s market will benefit to the software industry, recognized that, current revenue in IS & IT industry is mainly derive from private (SME, SMI, and MNC) and government organizations. For software firms to capture the revenue from packaging licenses and retailing is critical in social recognition of intellectual properties and piracy awareness.
Source: The Economist Intelligence Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-F: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Market Opportunities
The author do not have sufficient datum to demonstrate the household spending ratio in software purchases; in horizon, take a look on the market value if is piracy can be significantly reduce. The recent software piracy report released by Business Software Alliance (BSA) indicated that Malaysia’s US$ 2.9 billion IT sector could nearly double in size and creating new economic opportunities, jobs, and business. Following section, the author continues the piracy impact in IS & IT advances in “Social & Cultural” aspects.
1.1.3 Social & Cultural Aspect
The author recognized that, social and cultural impact to possible IS & IT advances are merely complex. The aspect included social adaptive to products and goods, impact with form of religion, relatively ethic and ethnic, dominant religion, attitudes, linguistic, population, aging, and tastes variation. An innovative technology could not able to existent if it is unable to capture this adaptive character derive from social and cultural aspect.
Laudon and Laudon (1999) indicated the IS & IT raise new ethical question for both individuals and societies, it is due to advances in IS & IT create opportunities for intense social change, and thus threaten existing distributions of new power, wealth, rights, responsibility and obligations. The author review to the historical cases from industrial revolution to other technologies impact, such as steam engines, atom boom, electricity, telephone, and radio; these technologies advances can be used to achieve social progress, but it also emerge to commit crimes and bring intangible threaten to social values. Relatively to advancement in IS & IT, it produce benefits from many perspective, and of course consequently incur costs for others. Piracy issue significantly demonstrates the impact to IS & IT advances.
In software industry, piracy is relative to the perspective of social values with products and goods. Yet, the author recognized two types of IS & IT advances, firstly the “quantifiable” as of technological innovations advances; secondly the “unquantifiable” advances as of social’s mentality in adopting the new economy based value – Intellectual Property (IP).
According to the summary report conducted by IDC (2005) released by BSA (2005), the report indicated that “Malaysia‘s IT sector has already become an 184,000-employee, $2.9-billion-a-year generator of economic opportunity. If the country reduces its 61 percent software piracy rate by 10 points, the sector could grow to $5.5 billion a year supporting a quarter of a million employees by 2009.” Figure 1-G shows the statiscal comparison as the beneficial by reducing piracy in IS & IT sector.
Source: Business Software Alliance (www.bsa.org/malaysia), analysis conducted by IDC.
Figure 1-G: Benefits to economic by reduction of piracy
In the research in “Poverty and Technologies” Quibria and Tschang (2001) comment the information technology phenomenon; “Many commentators have extolled the virtues of new information and communication technologies (ICTs) in reducing poverty and improving the quality of life. While such arguments have been used before in relation to many predecessor technologies, including other earlier communications technologies, the promise has often floundered.”
1.1.4 Technological Aspect, and Trends
Obviously, IS & IT has redefines the potential for productivity improvement and for business performance, it is the fundamental change in the way companies do business. The advances of IS & IT unleash and leverage resources to better performance. Slywotzky (2000) describe that “Productivity is measured as a ratio of value created to resources used.” and that when an organization is able to create more value while using fewer resources, then productivity grows. These technologies advancement meaning to business and that is what business organization always seeking for – productivity improvement and magnify profit. Slywotzky (2000) further describe the technological impact with historical paradigm:
The Industrial Revolutions of 1780-1820 (driven by the harnessing of steam) and 1880-1920 (driven by electricity) produced phenomenal leaps in productivity because the creative power of existing resources was multiplied.
Overview to the rapid development of IS & IT, the author recognized that timing, speed to market, expenditure on technologies adoption, and high turnover in IS & IT sector are the major risk to the operational costs and challenges by implementing IS & IT with business objective.
Advancement of IS & IT to software industry is relying to widen in others major technologies such as broadband penetration and quality, computer ownership. Yet, EIU (2005) forecast that is a persistent growth in these relative issues, Figure 1-H shows Malaysia ICT forecast.
Source: The Economist Unit, United Kingdom
Figure 1-H: Malaysia, Country Forecast – Information & Communication Technology
- The Internet has shown how access to global networked systems can revolutionize not only how we do business but even how we live; In addition, the explosion in mobile telephone use demonstrates the value we put on immediate, personal communications. Mobile commerce promises to combine these two phenomena into a whole new paradigm of personal, high value services.
(Business Insights, Nov 2000, Article synopsis: The Outlook of mCommerce: Technologies and Applications to 2005)
Not only development of internet has impetus the advancement for software industry, mobile technology also brings along with high perspective to the software industry as well.
1.2 The Impact to Software Organizations
The author perspective the IS & IT advances on “mentality” wise because of recognize the core competitive value for a software organization is Intellectual Property; thus, social value changes to realize piracy issue will be the major advancement to software organizations, and this impact is profound to many others industrial.
IS & IT advances toward broad business adoption to eCommerce, this imply more device or peripheral technologies are integrating into the IS & IT development, such as mobile technologies, voice over IP, 3G connection, internet operating system, and many others more; software industry need preparation to these technologies advance by developing their product to be enable for expansion to broad technological integration.
· TASK 2 IMPACT ON IS STRATEGIC
2.1 Consequence Analysis
By reference to the dictionary, “Consequence” is interpret as – “A thing or circumstance which follows as an effect or result from something preceding” and also “The action or condition of following as a result upon something antecedent; the relation of a result or effect to its cause or antecedent” (Oxford Online 2005). By recent reading and study into consequence analysis, the author recognized that “consequence analysis” is one of the methodologies of Risk Management/Analysis; the typical tools or models that are applicable included Fishbone Diagram and Fault Tree Diagram.
In the explanation of Business Dictionary (2003), Fishbone diagram is used to identify and categorize the possible causes of problems; the topic or problem to be discussed is placed in a box at the right-had side that corresponds to the fish’s head, and the major elements to be investigated are shown as branches at an angle to the horizontal spine. When conducting the Fishbone analysis, questions are asked to identify possible causes of problems in each area and the results are added to the diagram as additional layers of branches. This is to ensuring that all aspects of the problem are considered systematically. The author recognized that, the Fishbone diagram is also call Cause & Effect Diagram (Visio 2003) and Ishikawa Diagram (12manage.com); it is commonly used for brainstorming and problem solving. Figure 2-A illustrated typical Fishbone analysis diagram.
Source: Microsoft Corp. (http://www.microsoft.com/office/images/visio/prodinfo/ImageCauseEffect038_181.jpg
Figure 2-A: Overview: Fishbone Analysis Diagram
Visio (2003) online documentation indicated that Fault tree analysis diagram are commonly used to illustrate event that might lead to failure and can be prevented; it also commonly used in Six Sigma processes. By defining with the top event (or failure), then using the event and gate to address the process that might lead to the failure. Advantage of the Fault tree analysis diagram is enabling to identify the ways to eliminate or avoid the cause of the failure and further device corrective measures for preventing such failures. The author recognized that Fault Tree Analysis is also applicable for electronic, software, and environmental engineering.
Source: Microsoft Corp. (http://www.microsoft.com/office/images/visio/prodinfo/ImageFaultTree044_181.jpg)
Figure 2-B: Overview: Fault Tree Analysis Diagram
The author recognized that the value of IS & IT is that it enable to align with business goals as a tools by supporting the business operation toward the objectives. With current rapid competitive environment, planning is always unable to catch up with changes; McNurlin & Sprague (2002) in their research on IS management addressing a rhetorical question on “Why Planning is so Difficult?”; indicated that the difficulty is IS strategic systems plans need to integrate with business goals, rapid changing of technologies, system planning has become business planning thus it is no longer just a technological issue. Generally, consequence analysis encompassed circumstance with “Risk”, “Failure”, or forecast of an outcome. Of course, before implementing a decision or during the planning, plan ahead with contingency will reconcile the plan with uncertainty by anticipating those preceding factors.
2.2 A Simulation Case Example
Scenario: A software manufacturer is planning to reengineer a market hot selling software title and intended to introduce it to the market within a short development timeframe.
Strategic Plan likelihood:
With above concise scenario, the author demonstrates the consequence analysis by using Fishbone analysis diagram; as Figure 2-C.
Figure 2-C: Cause & Effect (Fishbone) Analysis Diagram
The author demonstrated a simple reengineering strategic planning; yet, it is still possible for the strategic plan to compete to the market in term of “speed to market” targeted to capture the initial audient. Simply conduct the consequence analysis by using “cause & effect” logic; the real world factors are easily to address.
2.3 IS Strategic Planning for Intellectual Property Creation
For a software organization, intellectual properties are always the tool in the competitive advantage. How do a software organizations plan on these intellectual properties? The author replicated these essential components (Microsoft IP Workshop 2006) into diagram as Figure 1-D.
Source: Compose from the note at Microsoft IP Workshop 2006
Figure 1-D: IS Strategic Planning for Intellectual Property Creation
By aligning the IP creation strategic planning with the development cycle, the author conducted following consequence analysis base on the table’s matrix, as Table 2-E.
|Item||Risk type||Occurrence rate||Impact||Cause||Consequent to||Prevention||Recovery strategies|
|1||Requirement change||70%||Serious||Social’s value changes||Risk 2||Understand social’s recognition||Apply object oriented programming standard on development|
|2||Increase of software size||80%||Serious||Change of technology’s standard||Risk 4||Study the trend of programming language||Maintaining with current programming languages|
|3||Staff turnover||20%||Serious||Organization change||Nil||Employment policy, increase the retain ability of staff||Rapid recruitment process|
|4||Technical support unreachable||10%||Moderate||Unawareness of technology used||Risk 2||Uncertain||Nil|
Source: Author modified from http://pm.csai.cn/all/no368.htm and Pressman 1997
Table 2-E: Consequence Analysis – Manage Risk
2.3 ‘Hard & Soft’ System Thinking
Wikipedia (2006) Hard and Soft System is the methodologies approach to Systems Thinking theory. The recent update explained in concise that Hard Systems involving simulations, often using computers and the techniques of operations research. It is Useful for problems that can justifiably be quantified. However it cannot easily take into account unquantifiable variables (opinions, culture, politics, etc), and may treat people as being passive, rather than having complex motivations. And Soft Systems is used to tackle systems that cannot easily be quantified, especially those involving people interacting with each other or with “systems”. Useful for understanding motivations, viewpoints, and interactions but, naturally, it doesn’t give quantified answers. A Soft System is a field that the academic Peter Checkland has done much to develop. Morphological Analysis is a complementary method for structuring and analyzing non-quantifiable problem complexes.
Mora, Gelman, and et al (2002) in their research indicated the hard system is physical and technological artificially designed systems that exhibit functional behaviors controlled by causal laws; opposition, soft system is preferred by systems thinkers that treat systems where the social, political, and human behavioral issues turn the system into a messy phenomenon for study. Generally, mathematical and logical symbols are the notation language preferred in the context of hard systems (Mora, Gelman and et al 2002). Wilson (1984) indicated linguistic-conceptual is the notation preferred in the context of soft systems (Wilson 1984, quoted in Mora, Gelman and et al 2002).
2.3.1 Benefit & Weaknesses of each Approach
Mora, Gelman, and et al (2002) mention in the description on hard and software systems that hard systems usually permit a direct mapping of the phenomenon to their conceptualization as a system but according to Wilson (1984), soft systems are better mapped by using linguistic-conceptual (Wilson 1984, quoted in Mora, Gelman and et al 2002). Hard systems thinking (logical-mathematical notations) are precise, but relationships and properties found in soft system could not be translated directly in equations or logical expressions (Wilson 1984). For example, an apple (quantifiable) and how does an apple taste (unquantifiable); extending the logic further, design and decorating an apple into more elegance looking and feel, mix the apple with some others catsup; obviously, the shape of apple can be easily carve into designed form, but, the taste are likely to mix up with others taste but it is unable to “re-engineer”.
· TASK 3 REFLECTION
3.1 Overview: Method of Enquiry
First and Second way of Knowing: Inductive-Consensual and Analytic-Deductive
In the book review article, Hemphill (1993) indicate Mitroff and Linstone (1993) define “old thinking” as the “first and second way of knowing”, an example of inductive-consensual inquiry that produces knowledge. As “first way of knowing” is a method of producing agreement on well-structured or “bounded” questions. Kienholz (1999) indicate that this “first way of knowing” is in the stream of Lokean inquiry system and it is for the Realist. And the “second way of knowing” involves the analytic-deductive inquiry systems that view the world as a “formula”; where Kienholz (1999) indicate that this “second way of knowing” is an inquiry system of Leibnizian and it is for the Analyst.
Third and Fourth way of Knowing: Multiple Realities and Dialectic
The “third way of knowing” involves multiple realities inquiry system, in which data, facts, or observations are an integral part of the theoretical model of a problem to be solved. And “the fourth way of knowing” involves the use of dialectic inquiry system, in which an “objective” outcome is produced as a result of an intense debate between two polarized potions (Mitroff and Linstone 1993, book review by Hemphill 1993). Kienholz (1999) indicate that the “third way of knowing” is the Idealist’s grand strategy, where it is emphasize in the stream of Kandian inquiry system; and the “fourth way of knowing” is the Synthesist’s grand strategy, where it is in the stream of Hegelian inquiry system.
The Fifth way of Knowing: Unbounded System Thinking (UST)
Unbounded System Thinking (UST) is what Mitroff and Linstone call their “fifth way of knowing” (Hemphill 1993). Kienholz (1999) indicate that this “fifth way of knowing” is the combination of the fist four way of knowing, as with agreement (inductive-consensual), analysis (analytic-deductive), multiple realities, dialectic, and conflict all having strict limitations; it is the grand strategy of the Pragmatist.
3.2 Approach to Problem Investigation
The author recognize in essence of his approach to problem investigation is mainly stream into Multiple Realities inquiry system. As can seen in P.E.S.T analysis (Task 1), the author driven his assumption by illustrating the forecast and statistic from the Economic Intelligence Unit; in the explanation of Kienholz (1999), the strategy of multiple realities inquiry system incur the data, facts, and observations pertaining to a problem depend on the theory or model one prefers to apply it.
3.3 Strength & Weaknesses
In essence, method of Multiple Realities is deduction of data and facts; for example by observation to the past result and conjunction with recent statistic and forecast the possible occurrence. The author recognizes, if the method of multiple realities purely conducted under the clew of statistic, it is insulating the contingency and absent in possible statistic variation.
Yet, base on derived from experience, the method of multiple realities is likely driven by the intuition and following to convince by experiential. Kienholz (1999) indicate that multiple realities having the model must be drawn from a range of discipline.
- Mitroff, Ian and Linstone, Harold 1993, The Unbounded Mind: Breaking the Chains of Traditional Business Thinking, Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford.
- McGrath, Michael E. 2000, Product Strategy for High-Technology Companies, McGraw-Hill Professional Book Group, 2nd USA.
- Slywotzky, Adrian 2000, How Digital Is Your Business? Westminster, USA.
- Cano, Jeimy (Editor) 2002, Critical Reflections on Information Systems: A Systemic Approach, Idea Group Publishing, USA.
- Mora, Manuel; Gelma, Ovsei; and et al 2002, ‘A Systemic Approach for the Formalization of the Information Systems Concept: Why Information Systems are Systems?’ Chapter 1 in Critical Reflections on Information Systems: A Systemic Approach, editor(s) Cano, Jeimy 2002, Idea Group Publishing, USA.
- Perseus Publishing 2003, The Ultimate Business Dictionary, Perseus Publishing, Cambridge.
- Perseus Publishing Staff 2003, Ultimate Small Business Guide: A Resource for Startups and Growing Business, Perseus Publishing.
- McNurlin, Barbara C. & Sprague, Jr. Ralph H. 2002, Information Systems Management in Practice, Prentice-Hall, International 5th
- Quibria, M. G. and Tschang, Ted 2001, Information & Communication Technology and Poverty: An Asian Perspective, Working paper series No. 12, Asian Development Bank Institute, ADBI Publishing, Tokyo.
- Kienholz, Alice 1999, Systems ReThinking: An Inquiring Systems Approach to the Art and Practice of the Learning Organization, Alice Kienholz Associates, http://www.bauer.uh.edu/parks/fis/inqre2a1.htm.
- Microsoft Visio 2003, Online Documentation, Enterprise Architect version 11.4301, Microsoft Corp.
- Oxford Online, Oxford English Dictionary: The definitive record of the English Language, Oxford University Press, 2005, http://dictionary.oed.com/
- Pressman, Roger S. 1997, Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach, International 4th McGraw-Hill, Singapore.
- EIU, The Economist Intelligence Unit, UK 2005, Malaysia – Country Forecast, The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited, UK, eiu.com.
- Quibria, M. G. and Tschang, Ted 2001, Information and Communication Technology and Poverty: An Asian Perspective, Asian Development Bank Institute.
 Author’s note from Microsoft Intellectual Property Workshop, 2006; Microsoft Malaysia, KLCC
 Chinapress Daily, http://www.chinapress.com.my/topic/focus/default.asp?sec=eshop&art=0421eshop01.txt
 AirAsia Bhd; http://www.airasia.com/site/en/home.jsp
 TGV Cinemas Sdn Bhd; http://www.tgv.com.my
 Golden Screen Cinemas Online; http://www.gsc.com.my